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English Summaries (05-06/2022)

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Katja Saarinen, Anne Sarajuuri, Riina Puosi & Erja Poutiainen

Cognitive performance of 16–17-year-old adolescents with univentricular heart

Univentricular heart (UVH) is a complex congenital heart defect. The survival rate of children with UVH has improved in recent decades because of improved surgical treatment. Most of the research on patients with UVH is performed on children. Information on the cognitive performance of adolescents with UVH is still limited. This is the first study to comprehensively and precisely assess the cognitive profile of Finnish adolescents with UVH. The data (=19) is representative of Finnish 16–17-year-old adolescents with UVH. The methods used were WAIS-IV, WMS-III, Trail Making, d2 and the Word Fluency test. The study showed lower cognitive outcome in the adolescents with UVH compared to the age reference group in some verbal and perceptual reasoning, learning of unrelated verbal material, visual memory and executive flexibility. On the other hand, UVH adolescents showed an expected level of verbal working memory, some episodic memory and visuomotor speed compared to the age reference group. Because of possible unevenness in cognitive skills, it is recommended to make a neuropsychological assessment to all adolescents with UVH. Knowledge of cognitive profiles of UVH adolescents is important in order to help adolescents find suitable ways to study and work and to offer the support needed.

Keywords: univentricular heart disease, neuropsychological assessment, cognitive performance


Johanna Rantanen, Frank Martela, Elina Auvinen, Katriina Hyvönen & Taru Feldt

Construct and content validity of Vocational Meaning Survey (VMS) from the perspective of Finnish working life and career counselling

In this research, the applicability of a new Vocational Meaning Survey (VMS) within the Finnish working life context is investigated with a data set (=218) comprising working-age Finnish adults. The VMS focuses on meaning and fulfilment at work as a part of a career guidance process as des-cribed by four dimensions: Basic Needs, Self Enhancement, Team Enhancement, and Transcendence. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the four-factor structure of the VMS. In addition, the reliabilities of the dimensions were good when the items having best fit with this Finnish data were retained. These observations support the construct validity and applicability of the Finnish version of the VMS in different counselling settings where the aim is to improve individuals’ self-knowledge regarding the meanings and experiences they attach to work as well as to chart the possible gap or misfit between current and desired working conditions in regard to meaningful work. Furthermore, thematic analyses of open-ended ques-tions indicated that the existing dimensions of the VMS could be refined to include two new dimensions: Authentic Agency and Self-Development. Hence, as a theoretical contribution we propose that through including these two new dimensions, the VMS will capture the sources of meaningful work even better, that is, it will take into account the individually emphasised different meanings of work more comprehensively.

Keywords: work, meaning, meaningfulness, working life, career, counselling, survey


Melina Puolamäki, Minttu Palsola, Elina Renko, Mia Silfver & Nelli Hankonen

A translation and cultural adaptation process of Self-Determination Theory-based self-report measures

Reliable and valid measures are crucial for high-quality research. It is often practical and necessary to translate validated international instruments; however, research projects may lack the time or the abilities to execute the process accordingly. The purpose of this article is to present a systematical translation and cultural adaption process of a novel set of Self-Determination Theory-based self-report instruments. Three questionnaires were translated from English into Finnish. These research instruments are questionnaires where professionals in different contexts (education, sports, or healthcare) can report their own motivating styles. The respondent is offered a description of a situation with four different ways to act. The translation process followed the principles of good practice for cross-cultural adaptation and translation process suggested by Wild et al. (2005). The steps included: 1) preparation, 2) forward translation, 3) reconciliation, 4) back translation, 5) back translation review, 6) harmonization, 7) cognitive debriefing, 8) review of cognitive debriefing results and finalization, 9) proofreading, and 10) final version. A thorough translation and cultural adaptation process is time-consuming and demands capable workforce. However, paying close attention to language and semantics can improve the usability and quality of the measures.

Keywords: translating, cross-cultural adaptation, self-report instruments, Self-Determination Theory, motivational styles