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English Summaries (01/2023)

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Katariina Kätkä, Pinja Kettunen, Anu Ruusunen, Soili Lehto, Beate Herbert & Kirsi Honkalampi

The validation study of Finnish MAIA-2

The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness 2 (MAIA-2) is a self-report questionnaire that consists of 37 items aimed to measure subjective interoceptive awareness. In this study, the Finnish translation of MAIA-2 was validated to Finnish general population (= 285). For that purpose, the factor structure and psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. The results were compared to the original validation studies and validation studies conducted in other countries. The analysis methods used to examine the psychometric properties of MAIA-2 were exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach alpha coefficient and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The fit indices were compared to the original validation studies and commonly accepted cut-off criteria. To examine the convergent and divergent validity of the scale, the correlations were calculated between MAIA-2 and three other psychological inventories: Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). The eight-factor structure of MAIA-2 was confirmed. The Cronbach alphas of the factors and complete scale were acceptable. The results also support the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. The psychometric properties of Finnish MAIA-2 are mainly similar compared to validations conducted with other translations of MAIA. The Finnish MAIA-2 can be considered as a reliable and valid measurement of interoceptive awareness.

Keywords: Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness 2 (MAIA-2), interoception, body awareness, validation study

Henri Koivisto, Henrietta Smolander, Kirsi Honkalampi, Maarit Pakarinen, Anu Ruusunen & Minna Valkonen-Korhonen

Depressive symptoms reduce while functioning improves less prominently: A follow-up study of depressed outpatients’ recovery

This six-month follow-up study examines recovery from depression in depressed outpatients. The aim was to investigate the changes in the subjects’ depressive symptoms, psychological distress and psychiatric symptoms. The data (= 144) is taken from the depressed patients’ follow-up study (DepFuD), gathered in Kuopio University Hospital District between 2015 and 2019. The main inclusion criterion was the diagnosis of a depressive episode, or an episode of recurrent depressive disorder. The mean age was 34.4 years and the majority were female (= 109). The measures used were BDI, CORE-OM, and SCL-90. Measurement points were at baseline and at six months. The recovery was defined based on BDI scores at follow-up (cut-off <13). 44 percent of the subjects recovered during the follow-up. Depressive symptoms (BDI) were more severe among the non-recovered patients already at the baseline, and the difference between the groups increased during the follow-up. Recovery was fastest in the symptoms and problems dimension and less prominent in the quality of life-related and especially functioning-related dimensions (CORE-OM). The non-recovered had more psychological distress. The psychiatric symptoms were more prevalent in the non-recovered group (SCL-90). The study suggests that the depressive symptoms alleviate faster than the functioning improves. The patients that do not recover as assumed should be identified early in the treatment. More attention should be paid to quality of life and especially functioning.

Keywords: depression, recovery from depression, BDI, CORE-OM, SCL-90

Sanna Ulmanen, Tiina Soini, Janne Pietarinen & Kirsi Pyhältö

Development of students’ social support profiles and association with students’ study wellbeing and grades

It is suggested that effective social support from teachers, peers and guardians is a key to promoting students’ school success and study wellbeing at school. However, longitudinal research on the implications of distinctive combinations of social support for students’ study wellbeing is scarce. We measured multiple dimensions of school-related social support (teacher, peer, and guardian support), study engagement, study burnout and grades in a sample of 2362 (NT1) Finnish primary school students in Grades 4, 5 and 6 (girls 50%). Latent transition analyses identified a 5-profile solution for each wave of data and revealed substantial inequality in perceived social support. Firstly, we found four profiles where social support from all three sources was experienced either on high, moderate, low, or very low level, labelled as Fully supported (48%), Moderately supported (31%), Weakly supported (14%) and Isolated (3%). In addition to these, a profile was found where a low level of social support from the teacher was combined with moderate or high levels of social support from two other sources, labelled as the Low teacher support (4%) profile. The profiles differed from each other in terms of study engagement, study burnout and grades and emphasized teachers’ special role in supporting students’ study wellbeing. Experiences of strong support were more stable over time. Moreover, the results showed that the experiences of school-related social support and study wellbeing are prone to change, highlighting the importance of each source of support throughout the students’ school path.

Keywords: school-related social support, study engagement, study burnout, grades, latent transition analysis

Kirsi Salonen, Kalevi Korpela & Katriina Hyvönen

Negative COVID-19 pandemic feelings buffered by nature experiences?

We studied the early phase of the lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. The aim was to investigate whether the strength of the negative feelings related to the COVID-19 pandemic (COVID-19 pandemic feelings) differed between the participants who answered the survey at different stages of spring. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between COVID-19 pandemic feelings and outdoor recreation in nature, nature-connectedness and perceived effects of nature. Participants (= 714) were 19–84-year-old adults (85% female; average age 44 yrs). Quantitative (ANCOVA, ANOVA, regression analysis) and qualitative (content analysis) methods were used for data analysis. The participants answering at the end of spring were less worried about the COVID-19 pandemic than those who answered earlier in the spring. The participants were classified into three groups: those who felt restored in nature, those who felt healthier in nature and those with ambivalent feelings of the effects of nature. Those who felt health-ier in nature reported that their COVID-19 pandemic feelings alleviated more than those in the two other groups. Self-reported increase in outdoor recreation and nature-connectedness were related to the decrease of negative COVID-19 pandemic feelings. Nature-connectedness moderated the relationship between the increase of outdoor recreation and decrease of COVID-19 pandemic feelings.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic feelings, nature experience, outdoor recreation in nature, nature-connectedness, perceived effects of nature