Development of study-related well-being among Finnish higher education students from the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic to the beginning of the second wave
The purpose of this study was to identify different groups in terms of level and changes of study engagement and exhaustion among Finnish higher education students during the lockdown and period of remote learning caused by the coronavirus pandemic in 2020. A person-oriented approach was applied to identify the groups. It was also investigated whether the identified groups differed in self-efficacy and sense of belonging. The study utilized six-month follow-up data, collected from 612 higher education students of Tampere Universities in April 2020 (T1), June 2020 (T2) and October 2020 (T3). Three groups with different levels of study-related well-being were identified: engaged (38%), engaged-exhausted (36%) and exhausted (26%) students.