English summaries

English Summaries (04-06/2023)

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Jaana Lilja

What is going to change in psychotherapy? A grounded theory based model of change in psychotherapy as clients describe it

Change in psychotherapy has often been studied in an expert-oriented way. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize change in psychotherapy as clients described it in their free-form writings. The therapist had a double role as a therapist and a researcher. The data consisted of 30 writings by the clients at the end of their long-term therapy. Grounded theory was employed as a substantive theory of change in psychotherapy. The change was conceptualized as the core category “Clarifying one’s own direction”, in which the subcategories were “Learning new things about oneself” and “Improving the quality of life”. The study offers an alternative perspective to traditional expert- and framework-oriented research of psychotherapy and highlights the benefits of client-oriented approach.

Keywords: psychotherapy, change, client description, grounded theory

Susanna Hellsten, Kirsi Raetsaari & Teemu Suorsa

Discussion of the conditions and possibilities for organizing support of the pupil – A subject-scientific perspective

This article addresses the experiences of the student, professionals and guardian participating in the multidisciplinary expert group on student welfare services with regard to the terms and possibilities of arranging support for the pupil. Experiences are examined using the theory of subject-scientific and systemic psychology. The material was collected during the schoolday in one meeting of a multidisciplinary group on student welfare services. In addition to the student and the guardians, six professionals representing different fields of expertise attended the meeting. Using the concepts and theory it was possible to perceive what kind of views and ideas guide the discussion. The analysis made visible different views on how to organize support and the difficulty of reconciling the views of different standpoints. Based on the research, the question seems to be under what conditions the student’s participation and right to education are made possible. Providing support is a constant balancing of educators with limiting and supporting student agency.

Keywords: student welfare, support, multidisciplinary, school

Sami Määttä, Iines Palmu, Nelli Hankonen, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Aki Lehtivuori, Frank Martela, Juho Polet, Kirsi Sjöblom, Minna Stenius & Kati Vasalampi

Making Self-Determination Theory understandable in Finnish: Main principles, translations, and corrections of misunderstandings

Self-Determination Theory explains an individuals’ behaviour, well-being, and personality development, and has become one of the leading theories in motivational psychology. It has been widely used in Finnish research and practical applications, for example in the fields of education and learning, working life, sport psychology, and health promotion since the 1990s. However, translations of the theory’s concepts into Finnish have been diverse: starting from the name of the theory, the translations have varied in both research and popular literature. Some of the translations have caused misunderstandings about the core contents of the theory. This paper aims to harmonize the Finnish conceptualization of the theory, correct common misconceptions, and propose such Finnish terms for the most central concepts that capture the meaning of the original concepts. First, we present the theory and its most central concepts along with the method utilized for translations. Then we explain and justify our suggestions for the Finnish terms to be used in the future. Finally, we correct some common misunderstandings related to the misleading translations that have appeared in Finnish discussions among researchers and practitioners over the recent years and recommend the use of terms autonomous and controlled motivation when appropriate. This article can be used to support scientific publishing on the topic in Finnish and as support material for students in various fields.

Keywords: Self-Determination Theory, motivation, consensus method, Finnish translations, misunderstandings